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Diseases & Conditions   - Adult Health Library

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Cardiovascular Diseases

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  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? Location of the Aortas and Arteries in the Human Body (Click to Enlarge) An abdominal aortic aneurysm, also called AAA or triple A, is ...

  • Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries

    Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries Click Image to Enlarge Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. Like all other tissues in the body, the heart muscle needs oxygen-rich blood t...

  • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

    Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves Click Image to Enlarge What are heart valves? The heart consists of four chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). Blood passe...

  • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

    Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves Click Image to Enlarge What are heart valves? The heart consists of four chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). There is a ...

  • Aneurysm

    Aneurysm What is an aneurysm? An aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of the vessel's normal diam...

  • Angina Pectoris

    Angina Pectoris What is angina pectoris? Angina pectoris (or simply angina) is recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood and oxygen. An...

  • Arrhythmias

    Arrhythmias What is an arrhythmia? An arrhythmia (also referred to as dysrhythmia) is an abnormal rhythm of the heart, which can cause the heart to pump less effectively. Arrhythmias can cause proble...

  • Atherosclerosis

    Atherosclerosis Click Image to Enlarge What is atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis (a thickening or hardening of the arteries) caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner li...

  • Atrial Fibrillation

    Atrial Fibrillation What is an arrhythmia? Arrhythmias (or dysrhythmias) are abnormal rhythms of the heart that cause the heart to pump less effectively. Normally, as the electrical impulse moves thr...

  • Basic Anatomy of the Heart

    Basic Anatomy of the Heart Click Image to Enlarge About the heart The heart is the hardest working muscle in the human body. Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about ...

  • Calculating Calories and Fat Grams

    Calculating Calories and Fat Grams To determine the number of calories and fat grams you need each day in order to either lose or gain weight, consult your physician or a registered dietitian. To mai...

  • Cardiac Arrest

    Cardiac Arrest Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart suddenly stops functioning. With no effective heartbeat, the brain and other vital organs are deprived of blood, leading to death within minutes. C...

  • Cardiac Arrest and Heart Disease

    Cardiac Arrest and Heart Disease Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart unexpectedly stops beating, usually because of abnormal heart rhythms, called arrhythmias. Surprisingly, cardiac arrest most ofte...

  • Cardiac Catheterization

    Cardiac Catheterization What is a cardiac catheterization (also called cardiac cath)? In cardiac catheterization (often abbreviated as "cath"), a very small catheter (hollow tube) is advanced from a ...

  • Cardiac Conditions and Diseases

    Cardiac Conditions and Diseases Many cardiac conditions require clinical care by a physician or other heart care professional. Listed in the directory below are some of these conditions, for which we...

  • Cardiac Diagnostic Tests

    Cardiac Diagnostic Tests New and advanced diagnostic tests and tools are constantly being introduced to further understand the complexity of disease, injury, and congenital (present at birth) or acqu...

  • Cardiac Procedures

    Cardiac Procedures The following procedures are often used in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Consult your physician or heart care professional for more specific information. ...

  • Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Cardiac Rehabilitation What is cardiac rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation is a doctor-supervised program for people who have either congenital or acquired heart disease. Program participants may ...

  • Cardiac Sarcoma

    Cardiac Sarcoma What is cardiac sarcoma? Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of tumor that occurs in the heart. Cardiac sarcoma is a primary malignant (cancerous) tumor. Tumors are considered to be either...

  • Cardiomyopathy

    Cardiomyopathy What is cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy describes any disorder that affects the heart muscle, causing the heart to lose its ability to pump blood effectively. In some instances, the hea...

  • Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Cardiovascular Disease Prevention It is possible to reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease - by eliminating the risk factors you can control, and managing the risk factors you cannot control. Bel...

  • Cardiovascular Disease Statistics

    Cardiovascular Disease Statistics Each year, heart disease is at the top of the list of the country's most serious health problems. In fact, statistics show that cardiovascular disease is America's l...

  • Carotid Artery Disease

    Carotid Artery Disease What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease, also called carotid artery stenosis, occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated bloo...

  • Cerebral Aneurysm

    Cerebral Aneurysm What is a cerebral aneurysm? Click Image to Enlarge A cerebral aneurysm (also called an intracranial aneurysm or brain aneurysm) is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery...

  • Cholesterol in the Blood

    Cholesterol in the Blood Facts about cholesterol Cholesterol is a fat-like, waxy substance that can be found in all parts of your body. It aids in the production of cell membranes, many hormones,...

  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Chronic Venous Insufficiency What is chronic venous insufficiency? Click Image to Enlarge Chronic venous insufficiency occurs when the leg veins do not allow blood to travel back to the heart. (Arter...

  • Claudication

    Claudication What is claudication? Claudication refers to limping because of pain in the thigh, calf, and/or buttocks that occurs when walking. Claudication may be a symptom of peripheral arterial di...

  • Components of Food

    Components of Food If you are trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition, starting with the components of food. Facts about cal...

  • Congenital Heart Defects

    Congenital Heart Defects What is a congenital heart defect? When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, a condition called congenital heart defect occurs (con...

  • Coronary Heart Disease

    Coronary Heart Disease Click Image to Enlarge What are the coronary arteries? Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. Like all other tissues in the body, the heart muscle needs oxygen-ric...

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis What is deep vein thrombosis? Click Image to Enlarge Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot develops in a vein deep in the body. Deep veins ...

  • Designing an Exercise Program

    Designing an Exercise Program How to design an exercise program Exercise is essential to maintaining health and can also improve your overall sense of well-being. Even low-to-moderate intensity activ...

  • Determining Your Body Mass Index

    Determining Your Body Mass Index What is body mass index? Determining how much you should weigh is not a simple matter of looking at an insurance height-weight chart, but includes considering the amo...

  • Diet and Cardiovascular Disease

    Diet and Cardiovascular Disease Following a healthy diet plan The food guide, called Choose My Plate, offers recommendations to help you eat a healthy diet. My Plate can help you eat a variety of foo...

  • Echocardiography (Echo)

    Echocardiography (Echo) What is an echocardiogram? An echocardiogram (also called echo, transthoracic echocardiogram or TTE, exercise or stress echocardiogram, dobutamine stress echocardiogram or DSE...

  • Effects of Stroke (Brain Attack)

    Effects of Stroke (Brain Attack) What are the effects of stroke? The effects of stroke (brain attack) vary from person to person based on the type, severity, and location of the stroke. The brain is ...

  • Evaluation Procedures for Stroke

    Evaluation Procedures for Stroke How is stroke diagnosed? In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for stroke may include the following. Imaging tests...

  • Exercise: Before Starting an Exercise Program

    Exercise: Before Starting an Exercise Program Starting a daily exercise program It is always important to consult your physician before starting an exercise program. This is particularly true if any ...

  • Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery

    Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery (Malabsorptive Procedure, Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass, Biliopancreatic Diversion) What is gastric bypass surgery? Gastric bypass surgery, a type of bariatric surge...

  • Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery

    Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery (Gastric Banding Surgery, Adjustable Gastric Banding, Vertical Banded Gastroplasty) What is gastric stapling (restrictive) surgery? Gastric stapling (restrictiv...

  • Glossary - Cardiovascular Diseases

    Glossary - Cardiovascular Diseases | A | | B | | C | | D | | E | | F | | G | | H | | I | | J | | K | | L | | M | | N | | O | | P | | Q | | R | | S | | T | | U | | V | | W | | X | | Y | | Z | A [retur...

  • Heart Failure

    Heart Failure What is heart failure? Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the body's other o...

  • Heart Murmurs

    Heart Murmurs What causes a heart murmur? Heart murmurs may be caused by a number of factors or diseases, including: Defective heart valves Holes in the walls of the heart (atrial septal defect or ve...

  • Heart Valve Diseases

    Heart Valve Diseases Click Image to Enlarge What are heart valves? The heart consists of four chambers -- two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). There is a valve through whic...

  • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension

    High Blood Pressure/Hypertension What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. The force is generated with each heartbeat as blood is pumped from ...

  • History of Stroke

    History of Stroke Hippocrates, the father of medicine, first recognized stroke over 2,400 years ago. At this time stroke was called apoplexy, which means "struck down by violence" in Greek. This was ...

  • Home Page - Cardiovascular Diseases

    Topic Index Basic Anatomy of the Heart Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves Statistics Cardiac ...

  • Lifestyle Changes

    Lifestyle Changes Primary risk factors for chronic disease At the top of the CDC's list of primary risk factors for all chronic diseases are: smoking, poor nutrition, and sedentary lifestyle. Living ...

  • Maintaining Weight Loss

    Maintaining Weight Loss Benefits of maintaining weight loss While losing weight is difficult for many people, it is even more challenging to keep weight off. Most individuals who lose a large amount ...

  • Medical Management of Vascular Conditions

    Medical Management of Vascular Conditions Vascular system overview The blood vascular system, also called the circulatory system, of the body is made up of arteries, veins, and capillaries (tiny bloo...

  • Medical Treatment for Obesity

    Medical Treatment for Obesity Medical treatment overview Treatment by a doctor may be necessary when an individual's own efforts to lose weight have failed and/or when coexisting medical conditions m...

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic Syndrome What is metabolic syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. According to the National...

  • Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Mitral Valve Prolapse What is mitral valve prolapse (MVP)? Mitral valve prolapse, also known as click-murmur syndrome, Barlow's syndrome, balloon mitral valve, or floppy valve syndrome, is the bulgin...

  • Obesity

    Obesity Obesity has a far-ranging negative effect on health. People who are overweight or obese are at increased risk for developing many different health conditions, including heart disease, type 2 ...

  • Obesity Treatment Overview

    Obesity Treatment Overview Treatment goals Regardless of the type or combination of obesity treatment, goal setting is an important part of any obesity treatment plan. While a person may want to lose...

  • Online Resources - Cardiovascular Diseases

    Online Resources - Cardiovascular Diseases This Web was compiled from a variety of sources including the online resources listed below, but is not intended to substitute or replace the professional m...

  • Overview of Obesity

    Overview of Obesity Facts about obesity Overweight and obesity together make up a leading preventable cause of death in the U.S. Obesity is a chronic disease that can seriously affect your health. Ov...

  • Overview of Stroke

    Overview of Stroke Click Image to Enlarge What is stroke? Stroke, also called brain attack, occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. Disruption in blood flow is caused when either a blood cl...

  • Overview of the Vascular System

    Overview of the Vascular System What is the vascular system? The vascular system, also called the circulatory system, is made up of the vessels that carry blood and lymph through the body. The arteri...

  • Pericarditis

    Pericarditis What is pericarditis? Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart. There is a small amount of fluid between the inner and outer laye...

  • Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Peripheral Vascular Disease What is peripheral vascular disease (PVD)? Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a slow and progressive circulation disorder. It may involve disease in any of the blood ves...

  • Preventing Obesity

    Preventing Obesity in Children and Teens Facts about prevention Obesity is a chronic disease affecting increasing numbers of children and adolescents as well as adults. Obesity rates among children i...

  • Pulmonary Embolism

    Pulmonary Embolism What is a pulmonary embolism? A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot that develops in a blood vessel elsewhere in the body (most commonly from the leg), travels to an artery in ...

  • Rehabilitation for Stroke

    Rehabilitation for Stroke What is rehabilitation? Rehabilitation is the process of helping an individual achieve the highest level of independence and quality of life possible--physically, emotionall...

  • Renal Vascular Disease

    Renal Vascular Disease What is renal vascular disease? Renal vascular disease is the name given to a variety of complications that affect the arteries and veins of the kidneys. These complications af...

  • Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Rheumatic Heart Disease Click Image to Enlarge What is rheumatic heart disease? Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever. The hear...

  • Risks of Physical Inactivity

    Risks of Physical Inactivity What health risks are associated with physical inactivity? Lack of physical activity has clearly been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and other condi...

  • Signs and Symptoms of Stroke

    Signs and Symptoms of Stroke What are the most common symptoms of stroke? The following are the most common symptoms of stroke. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. If any of...

  • Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease

    Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease According to the American Heart Association (AHA), diseases caused by smoking kill more than 440,000 people in the United States each year; of that number, more tha...

  • Statistics of Stroke

    Statistics of Stroke More about stroke or brain attack The American Stroke Association (ASA), a division of the American Heart Association, reports the following statistics regarding strokes: Stroke ...

  • Stroke (Brain Attack)

    Stroke (Brain Attack) Stroke is a serious condition that requires clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below you will find some additional informatio...

  • Surgical Treatment for Obesity

    Surgical Treatment for Obesity Weight-loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is the only option today that may effectively treat morbid obesity in people for whom more conservative measures suc...

  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Aortic Dissection

    Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Aortic Dissection What is a thoracic aortic aneurysm? Location of Aortas and Arteries in the Body (Click to Enlarge) A thoracic aortic aneurysm, also called TAA, is a bul...

  • Topic Index - Cardiovascular Diseases

    Topic Index - Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Diseases Home Basic Anatomy of the Heart Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries Anato...

  • Treatment for Stroke

    Treatment for Stroke Medical treatment for stroke Specific treatment for stroke will be determined by your doctor based on: Your age, overall health, and medical history Severity of the stroke Locati...

  • Treatment of Obesity

    Treatment of Obesity Because obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person's health, treatment is very important. A variety of methods are used to treat obesity....

  • Types of Stroke

    Types of Stroke What are the different types of stroke? According to the American Stroke Association (ASA), strokes can be classified into two main categories: 87 percent are ischemic strokes. These ...

  • Varicose Veins

    Varicose Veins What are varicose veins? Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible through the skin and may appear as blue or purple twisted, knot-like cords. Varicose veins can occur anywher...

  • Vascular Conditions and Diseases

    Vascular Conditions and Diseases There are many vascular conditions that require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some of these condit...

  • Ventricular Fibrillation

    Ventricular Fibrillation Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a dangerous, life-threatening heart rhythm problem. This type of arrhythmia can cause the heart to stop beating abruptly (cardiac arrest) and...