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Pediatric Library

Cardiovascular Disorders

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  • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome What is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome? 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder with varying conditions present in each individual with the syndrome. In this syndrome, a ...

  • About the Heart and Blood Vessels

    About the Heart and Blood Vessels Click Image to Enlarge The heart is the hardest working muscle in the human body. Located almost in the center of the chest, a normal healthy adult heart is the size...

  • Anatomy and Function of the Electrical System

    Anatomy and Function of the Electrical System The heart's electrical system The heart is, in the simplest terms, a pump made up of muscle tissue. Like all pumps, the heart requires a source of energy...

  • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

    Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves Click Image to Enlarge What are heart valves? The heart consists of four chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). Blood passe...

  • Anomalous Coronary Artery (ACA)

    Anomalous Coronary Artery (ACA) What is ACA? An anomalous coronary artery (ACA) is a coronary artery that has an abnormality or malformation. The malformation is congenital (present at birth) and is ...

  • Aortic Stenosis

    Aortic Stenosis What is aortic stenosis? Click Image to Enlarge Aortic stenosis is a heart defect that may be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). If the problem is cong...

  • Arrhythmias in Children

    Arrhythmias in Children What is an arrhythmia? An arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia) is an abnormal rhythm of the heart, which can cause the heart to pump less effectively. Arrhythmias can cause pr...

  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

    Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) What is an atrial septal defect? Click Image to Enlarge An atrial septal defect is an opening in the atrial septum, or dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the h...

  • Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal or AVC)

    Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal or AVC) What is atrioventricular canal defect? Atrioventricular canal defect (AV canal) is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect. Other terms used to describe ...

  • Bacterial Endocarditis

    Bacterial Endocarditis What is bacterial endocarditis? Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves. This infection can occur in any person (infant, chi...

  • Blood Tests

    Blood Tests Blood tests to evaluate heart disease Children may have blood tests done to help the doctor evaluate their illness, or to help monitor their health after surgery. These tests may include ...

  • Cardiac Catheterization in Children

    Cardiac Catheterization in Children What is a cardiac catheterization? Cardiac catheterization is a specialized procedure in which a long, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel (us...

  • Cardiomyopathy and Your Child

    Cardiomyopathy and Your Child What is cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy occurs due to any disorder of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively. In some instances, ...

  • Chest X-Ray and Children

    Chest X-Ray and Children What are X-rays? X-rays are made by using low levels of external radiation to produce images of the body, the organs, and other internal structures for diagnostic purposes. X...

  • Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation of the Aorta What is coarctation of the aorta? Click Image to Enlarge Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect involving a narrowing of the aorta. The aort...

  • Complex Heart Problems

    Complex Heart Problems There are many complex problems of the heart that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we ha...

  • Components of Food

    Components of Food If you are trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition, starting with the components of food. Facts about cal...

  • Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease According to the American Heart Association, about eight of every 1000 babies born in the United States has a congenital (present at birth) heart defect--a problem that occur...

  • Congenital Heart Disease Index

    Congenital Heart Disease Index There are many different congenital heart defects (i.e., heart defects present at birth) that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Lis...

  • CT (Computed Tomography) Scan

    CT (Computed Tomography) Scan What is a CT scan (computed tomography)? In conventional X-rays, a beam of energy is aimed at the body part being studied. A plate behind the body part captures the vari...

  • Echocardiography

    Echocardiography What is echocardiography? Echocardiography is a procedure used to assess the heart's structures and function. Echocardiography is also called echo, cardiac ultrasound or ultrasonogra...

  • Eisenmenger's Syndrome

    Eisenmenger Syndrome What is Eisenmenger syndrome? Eisenmenger syndrome is a condition that includes a collection of symptoms: cyanosis (pale blue or grayish skin due to decreased oxygen in the blood...

  • EKG/ECG

    EKG/ECG What is an electrocardiogram (ECG)? An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is one of the simplest and fastest procedures used to evaluate the heart. Electrodes (small, plastic patches) are placed ...

  • Emotional and Family Issues

    Emotional and Family Issues Many factors influence how a child feels about having congenital (present at birth) heart disease and how it affects him or her mentally and emotionally. Some of these fac...

  • Exercise EKG/ECG Testing for Children

    Exercise EKG/ECG Testing for Children What is exercise ECG testing? An ECG (also called EKG) is one of the simplest and fastest procedures used to evaluate the heart. Electrodes (small, plastic patch...

  • Factors Contributing to Congenital Heart Disease

    Factors Contributing to Congenital Heart Disease What causes congenital heart disease? A congenital heart defect (CHD) is a heart problem which is present at birth, caused by improper development of ...

  • Fetal Circulation

    Fetal Circulation How does the fetal circulatory system work? During pregnancy, the fetal circulatory system works differently than after birth: The fetus is connected by the umbilical cord to the pl...

  • Fetal Echocardiography

    Fetal Echocardiography What is fetal echocardiography? Fetal echocardiography is an ultrasound test performed during pregnancy to evaluate the heart of the unborn baby. Echocardiography assesses the ...

  • Glossary - Cardiovascular Disorders

    Glossary - Cardiovascular Disorders | A | | B | | C | | D | | E | | F | | G | | H | | I | | J | | K | | L | | M | | N | | O | | P | | Q | | R | | S | | T | | U | | V | | W | | X | | Y | | Z | A [back...

  • Growth and Development

    Growth and Development Growth considerations for your child Children with congenital (present at birth) heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children. For example: Your child m...

  • Heart Defects Causing Obstructions to Blood Flow

    Heart Defects Causing Obstruction to Blood Flow Heart defects that cause obstruction to blood flow require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below...

  • Heart Failure in Children

    Heart Failure in Children What is heart failure? Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the bo...

  • Heart Murmurs in Children

    Heart Murmurs in Children What is a heart murmur? Murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood circulating through the heart's chambers or valves, or through blood vessels near the heart. What c...

  • Heart Transplantation in Children

    Heart Transplantation in Children What is a heart transplant? A heart transplant is an operation performed to replace a diseased heart with a healthy one from another person. Why is a heart transplan...

  • Heart-Healthy Eating

    Heart-Healthy Eating What is heart-healthy eating? A diet high in fat and cholesterol may contribute to the development of heart disease in adulthood. A heart-healthy diet may help prevent or treat h...

  • High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

    High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents What is blood pressure? Blood pressure, measured with a blood pressure cuff and stethoscope by a nurse or other health care provider, is the force of t...

  • Holter Monitoring

    Holter Monitoring What is a Holter monitor? When symptoms, such as dizziness, fainting, low blood pressure, prolonged fatigue, or palpitations, continue to occur without a definitive diagnosis obtain...

  • Home Page - Cardiovascular Disorders

    Topic Index The Heart Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children Heart Murmurs Heart Failure Congenital Heart Disease Rheumatic Heart Disease Cardiomyopathy Bacterial Endocarditis Eisenmenge...

  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Click Image to Enlarge What is hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a combination of several abnormalities of the heart and great...

  • Kawasaki Disease

    Kawasaki Disease What is Kawasaki disease? Kawasaki disease is the most common form of vasculitis that primarily affects children. The disease produces irritation and inflammation of many tissues of ...

  • Living With Congenital Heart Disease

    Living With Congenital Heart Disease Living with congenital (present at birth) heart disease requires special care for your child. Listed in the directory below you will find additional information r...

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Children

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Children What is MRI? MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to pr...

  • Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is a disorder involving the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue has many important functions, including the following: Assisting with ...

  • Online Resources - Cardiovascular Disorders

    Online Resources - Cardiovascular Disorders This Web was compiled from a variety of sources including the online resources listed below, but is not intended to substitute or replace the professional ...

  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Click Image to Enlarge What is PDA? PDA is a heart problem that is usually noted in the first few weeks or months after birth. It is characterized by a connection betwe...

  • Pericarditis in Children

    Pericarditis in Children What is pericarditis? Pericarditis is caused by inflammation or infection of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart. There is a small amount of flu...

  • Physical Examination

    Physical Examination Your child's physical examination Your child's doctor will perform an examination of your child when diagnosing or evaluating heart disease. This examination may include a head-t...

  • Problems Involving Heart Rhythm

    Problems Involving Heart Rhythm There are many problems that affect the heart's rhythm that require care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below you will find s...

  • Pulmonary Atresia (PA)

    Pulmonary Atresia (PA) What is pulmonary atresia? Click Image to Enlarge Pulmonary atresia (PA) is a complicated congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fe...

  • Pulmonary Stenosis

    Pulmonary Stenosis What is pulmonary stenosis? Click Image to Enlarge Pulmonary stenosis is a congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during th...

  • Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children

    Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children What is rheumatic heart disease? Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever. The heart valve bec...

  • Stroke in Children

    Stroke in Children A stroke is a brain injury caused by the interruption of blood flowing to part of the brain. Stroke can be caused by a blocked blood vessel in the brain or by a bleeding blood vess...

  • Syncope

    Syncope What is syncope? Syncope is a temporary loss of consciousness and muscle tone caused by inadequate blood supply to the brain. Syncope is sometimes also called fainting. Syncope accounts for 1...

  • Tetralogy of Fallot

    Tetralogy of Fallot What is tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF or "TET") is a complex condition of several congenital (present at birth) defects that occur due to abnormal development of t...

  • The Heart

    The Heart To learn more about the intricate process of heart transplantation, it is important to first learn about the heart and its components. Listed in the directory below you will find additional...

  • Tilt Table Evaluation

    Tilt Table Evaluation A medical problem which can have many different causes is syncope (fainting). Syncope may occur rarely or frequently, depending on the cause. Some causes of syncope may include,...

  • Topic Index - Cardiovascular Disorders

    Topic Index - Cardiovascular Disorders Cardiovascular Disorders Home The Heart About the Heart and Blood Vessels Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves Anatomy and Function of the Electrical System...

  • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return What is total anomalous pulmonary venous return? Click Image to Enlarge Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a congenital (present at birth) hear...

  • Transesophageal Echocardiography

    Transesophageal Echocardiography What is transesophageal echocardiography? Transesophageal echocardiography is also known as TEE, or heart scan with endoscopy. TEE uses a small probe guided into the ...

  • Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

    Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) What is transposition of the great arteries? Click Image to Enlarge Transposition of the great arteries is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect. Due ...

  • Tricuspid Atresia (TA)

    Tricuspid Atresia (TA) What is tricuspid atresia? Click Image to Enlarge Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal he...

  • Truncus Arteriosus

    Truncus Arteriosus What is truncus arteriosus? Click Image to Enlarge Truncus arteriosus is a congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during th...

  • Ultrafast/Electron Beam CT Scan

    Ultrafast/Electron Beam CT Scan What is an ultrafast/electron beam CT (computed tomography) scan? In standard X-rays, a beam of energy is aimed at the body part being studied. A plate behind the body...

  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

    Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) What is a ventricular septal defect? Click Image to Enlarge A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the ventricular septum, or dividing wall between the two lower...