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Pediatric Library

Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

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  • Anatomy of the Urinary System

    Anatomy of the Urinary System Click Image to Enlarge How do the kidneys and urinary system work? The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food comp...

  • Circumcision

    Circumcision What is circumcision? Circumcision is a surgical procedure to remove the skin covering the end of the penis, called the foreskin. In many cultures, circumcision is a religious rite or a ...

  • Dialysis

    Dialysis What is dialysis? Dialysis is a procedure that is performed routinely on persons who suffer from acute or chronic renal failure. The process involves removing waste substances and fluid from...

  • Disorders of Sex Development

    Disorders of Sex Development When a child's gender is in question at birth, because genitals may not appear clearly male or female, the child is said to have atypical genitalia, also known as ambiguo...

  • Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias

    Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias What is exstrophy of the bladder? Exstrophy of the bladder is a complex combination of disorders that occurs during fetal development. The disorder usually inv...

  • Glomerulonephritis in Children

    Glomerulonephritis in Children What is glomerulonephritis? Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that involves the glomeruli. The glomeruli are very small, important structures in the kidney...

  • Glossary - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

    Glossary - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders | A | | B | | C | | D | | E | | F | | G | | H | | I | | J | | K | | L | | M | | N | | O | | P | | Q | | R | | S | | T | | U | | V | | W | | X | | Y | | Z...

  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) in Children What is hemolytic uremic syndrome? Click Image to Enlarge HUS is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure in children. Kidney failure develops as a...

  • Home Page - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

    Topic Index Anatomy of the Urinary System Overview of Genitourinary Disorders Overview of Kidney Disorders Glossary Urology is a surgical specialty concerned with normal and abnormal problems of the ...

  • Horseshoe Kidney

    Horseshoe Kidney What is a horseshoe kidney? Horseshoe kidney occurs in about one in 500 children. It occurs during fetal development as the kidneys move into their normal position in the flank area ...

  • Hydrocele

    Hydrocele What is a hydrocele? A hydrocele occurs from an accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis (a thin pouch that holds the testes within the scrotum). Hydrocele. Click to Enlarge. In the fe...

  • Hypospadias

    Hypospadias What is hypospadias? Hypospadias is a malformation that affects the urethral tube and the foreskin on a male's penis. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the ou...

  • Inguinal Hernia in Children

    Inguinal Hernia in Children What is an inguinal hernia? A hernia occurs when a section of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal muscles. A soft bulge is seen underneath the skin whe...

  • Kidney Transplantation in Children

    Kidney Transplantation in Children What is a kidney transplant? A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from another person. The kidne...

  • Male Conditions

    Male Conditions Several disorders of the urinary tract only affect males. This is largely related to the male anatomy, as well as fetal development. Disorders that affect males may involve the penis,...

  • Megaureter

    Megaureter What is megaureter? Megaureter (dilated ureter) is an abnormality of one or both of the ureters of a child. Ureters are the two funnel-shaped tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the...

  • Micropenis

    Micropenis What is micropenis? Micropenis is defined as a normally structured penis that is below the normal size range for an infant. Normally, the length of a newborn boy's penis is between 2.8 to ...

  • Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

    Nephrotic Syndrome in Children What is nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by the following symptoms that result from changes that occur to the small, functional structures in the...

  • Neurogenic Bladder in Children

    Neurogenic Bladder in Children What is a neurogenic bladder? Neurogenic bladder may also be called neuropathic bladder. The muscles and nerves of the urinary system work together to hold urine in the...

  • Nutrition and Nephrotic Syndrome

    Nutrition and Nephrotic Syndrome Nutritional requirements for a child with nephrotic syndrome Children with nephrotic syndrome may have trouble regulating their body's water balance. This can cause f...

  • Nutrition and Renal Failure

    Nutrition and Renal Failure The kidneys are responsible for many functions in the body. They help control the body's fluid and electrolyte (mineral) balance and also help the body remove waste produc...

  • Overview of Genitourinary Disorders

    Overview of Genitourinary Disorders What does genitourinary mean? Genitourinary is a word that refers to the urinary and genital organs. Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary t...

  • Overview of Kidney Disorders in Children

    Overview of Kidney Disorders in Children How do the kidneys work? The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food that it needs, waste products are l...

  • Overview of Renal Failure

    Overview of Renal Failure What is renal failure? Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function. There are two different types of ...

  • Overview of the Male Anatomy

    Overview of the Male Anatomy The following is an overview of the male reproductive anatomy: Click Image to Enlarge Anus. The opening at the end of the digestive tract where bowel contents leave the b...

  • Phimosis and Paraphimosis

    Phimosis and Paraphimosis What is phimosis and paraphimosis? Phimosis is a constriction of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be drawn back over the tip of the penis. This condition is a n...

  • Phosphorus Restriction

    Phosphorus Restriction Controlling phosphorus in your child's diet Most children with renal failure need to limit the amount of phosphorus in foods they eat. The kidneys help remove excess phosphorus...

  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

    Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) What is polycystic kidney disease (PKD)? Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the k...

  • Posterior Urethral Valves (PUV)

    Posterior Urethral Valves (PUV) What are posterior urethral valves? Posterior urethral valves (or PUV) are an abnormality of the urethra, which is the tube that drains urine from the bladder to the o...

  • Potassium Restriction

    Potassium Restriction Potassium requirements for children with renal failure Potassium is very important to the body, but too much potassium in the blood can be harmful. When your child's kidneys do ...

  • Protein Restriction

    Protein Restriction Protein requirements for children with renal failure The body uses protein from foods to grow and repair cells. With kidney failure, your child will need to avoid excess protein. ...

  • Prune Belly Syndrome

    Prune Belly Syndrome What is prune belly syndrome? Prune belly syndrome is also known as triad syndrome or Eagle-Barrett syndrome. It is characterized by a triad of abnormalities that include the fol...

  • Renal Failure

    Renal Failure Diseases of the kidneys often produce temporary or permanent changes to the small functional structures and vessels inside the kidney. These changes may eventually lead to renal failure...

  • Sodium and Fluid Restriction

    Sodium and Fluid Restriction Sodium restriction for children with renal failure A low-sodium diet or salt restriction may be used to help prevent or reduce fluid retention in your child's body. The a...

  • Testicular Torsion

    Testicular Torsion What is testicular torsion? Testicular torsion is a twisting of the testicles and the spermatic cord (the structure extending from the groin to the testes that contains nerves, duc...

  • Topic Index - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

    Topic Index - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders Home Anatomy of the Urinary System Overview of Genitourinary Disorders Disorders of Sex Development Exstrophy of th...

  • Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism)

    Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism) What is cryptorchidism (undescended testes)? Cryptorchidism (or undescended testes) is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not pa...

  • Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication

    Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication What is a ureterocele? A ureterocele involves the kidney, ureter, and bladder. A normal ureter is one that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. When a...

  • Urinary Incontinence (Enuresis)

    Urinary Incontinence (Bedwetting or Enuresis) What is urinary incontinence (enuresis)? Urinary incontinence (enuresis) is the medical term for bedwetting. Incontinence is accidental or intentional ur...

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What are urinary tract infections (UTIs)? Urinary tract infections describe a health problem that results from a bacterial infection along the urinary tract. The urina...

  • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

    Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)? Vesicoureteral reflux occurs when urine dwelling in the bladder flows back into the ureters and often back into the kidneys. The bladd...