• 530.541.3420 | 2170 South Avenue, S. Lake Tahoe, CA
Health

Diseases & Conditions   - Pediatric Library

Pediatric Library

High-Risk Newborn

Back

  • Adding to Mother's Milk

    Adding to Mother's Milk Is a mother's own milk enough? Certain nutrients occur at the same levels in premature milk as in term milk. Also, the overall calorie count is the same for both. Human milk c...

  • Apnea of Prematurity

    Apnea of Prematurity What is apnea of prematurity? Apnea is a term for the absence of breathing for more than 20 seconds. It can occur in full-term babies, but is more common in premature babies. The...

  • Assessments for Newborn Babies

    Assessments for Newborn Babies Each newborn baby is carefully checked at birth for signs of problems or complications. A complete physical assessment will be performed that includes every body system...

  • Birth Defects Index

    Birth Defects Index Many different types of birth defects place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are ...

  • Birth Injury

    Birth Injury What is a birth injury? Occasionally during the birth process, the baby may suffer a physical injury that is simply the result of being born. This is sometimes called birth trauma or bir...

  • Blood Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn

    Blood Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn How does the fetal circulatory system work? During pregnancy, the fetal circulatory system works differently than after birth: The fetus is connected by the...

  • Blood Types in Pregnancy

    Blood Types in Pregnancy About blood types Every person has a blood type, (O, A, B, or AB) and an Rh factor, either positive or negative. The blood type and the Rh factor simply mean that a person's ...

  • Breast Milk: Pumping, Collecting, Storing

    Breast Milk: Pumping, Collecting, Storing The following are general guidelines for collecting and storing breast milk when using a hospital-grade electric breast pump. If the NICU gives you more spec...

  • Breastfeeding Overview

    Breastfeeding Overview Giving birth to a premature or other high-risk baby (or babies) does not mean you cannot breastfeed. Actually, the opposite may be the case. There is even more reason to provid...

  • Breastfeeding the High-Risk Newborn

    Breastfeeding the High-Risk Newborn Listed in the directory below is some additional information regarding breastfeeding a high-risk newborn, for which we have provided a brief overview. Breastfeedin...

  • Caring for Babies in the NICU

    Caring for Babies in the NICU Ten to 15 percent of all newborn babies require care in a NICU, and giving birth to a sick or premature baby can be quite unexpected for any parent. Unfamiliar sights, s...

  • Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Chromosomal Abnormalities There are many different types of chromosome abnormalities that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some...

  • Chronic Lung Disease

    Chronic Lung Disease What is chronic lung disease? Chronic lung disease (CLD) is a general term for long-term respiratory problems in premature babies. It is also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia ...

  • Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate

    Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate What are cleft lip and cleft palate? Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth abnormalities of the mouth and lip. In the United States, nearly 6,800 babies are born with oral-facia...

  • Common Conditions and Complications

    Common Conditions and Complications Advances in technology have helped improve the care of sick newborns. Under the care of specialized physicians and other health care providers, babies have much gr...

  • Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease According to the American Heart Association, about eight of every 1000 babies born in the United States has a congenital (present at birth) heart defect--a problem that occur...

  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) What is cytomegalovirus (CMV)? Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus related to the herpes virus group of infections. Like herpes, it is inactive at times, but it is incurable and is...

  • Delayed or Not Enough Milk Production

    Delayed or Not Enough Milk Production When milk production is delayed or not enough A delay in the time when milk "comes in" sometimes occurs after the birth of a high-risk baby. Also, it is not unus...

  • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

    Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) What is DDH? Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a congenital (present at birth) condition of the hip joint. It occurs once in every 1,000 live births. The ...

  • Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Diaphragmatic Hernia What is a diaphragmatic hernia? A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect, which is an abnormality that occurs before birth as a fetus is forming in the mother's uterus. An openin...

  • Digestive Disorders in Children

    Digestive Disorders in Children Many digestive disorders may require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Some digestive disorders are congenital (present at birth) while o...

  • Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System

    Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System Occasionally, neurological or brain disorders may occur in newborn babies. Premature babies (born before 37 weeks gestation) are especially at risk. Neurolog...

  • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

    Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) What are trisomies? The term trisomy is used to describe the presence of three chromosomes, rather than the usual matched pair of chromosomes. For example, if a baby is bor...

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome What is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)? An infant born to a mother who drinks alcohol during pregnancy can have problems included in a group of disorders called fetal alcohol spe...

  • Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)

    Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) What is GER? Gastroesophageal reflux is a digestive disorder that is caused by the abnormal flow of gastric acid from the stomach into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal re...

  • Glossary - High-Risk Newborn

    Glossary - High-Risk Newborn | A | | B | | C | | D | | E | | F | | G | | H | | I | | J | | K | | L | | M | | N | | O | | P | | Q | | R | | S | | T | | U | | V | | W | | X | | Y | | Z | A [back to top...

  • Group B Streptococcus

    Group B Streptococcus What is group B streptococcus? Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a bacterium that can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. Although GBS infec...

  • Heart Disorders

    Heart Disorders There are many heart disorders that place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some, f...

  • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn What is hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)? Hemolytic disease of the newborn is also called erythroblastosis fetalis. This condition occurs when there is an incom...

  • Hernia (Umbilical/Inguinal)

    Hernia (Umbilical/Inguinal) What is a hernia? A hernia occurs when a section of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal muscles. A soft bulge is seen underneath the skin where the her...

  • High-Risk Newborn Blood Disorders

    High-Risk Newborn Blood Disorders Many blood disorders place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are som...

  • Home Page - High-Risk Newborn

    Topic Index The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Assessments of Newborn Babies Caring for Babies in the NICU Common Conditions and Complications Parenting in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU...

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) What is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which kills or impairs cells of th...

  • Hydrocephalus

    Hydrocephalus What is hydrocephalus? Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is excessive fluid in and around the brain. It occurs from a lack of absorption, blockage of flow, or overproduction o...

  • Hydrops Fetalis

    Hydrops Fetalis What is hydrops fetalis? Hydrops fetalis is a severe, life-threatening problem of severe edema (swelling) in the fetus and newborn. It is also called hydrops. There are two types of h...

  • Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice

    Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice What is hyperbilirubinemia? Hyperbilirubinemia is a condition in which there is too much bilirubin in the blood. When red blood cells break down, a substance called bi...

  • Hypocalcemia

    Hypocalcemia What is hypocalcemia? Hypocalcemia is a condition in which there is too little calcium in the blood. A common form of hypocalcemia in babies is called neonatal hypocalcemia. This conditi...

  • Hypoglycemia in the Newborn

    Hypoglycemia in the Newborn What is hypoglycemia in the newborn? Hypoglycemia is a condition in which the amount of blood glucose (sugar) in the blood is lower than normal. Who is affected by hypogly...

  • Hypospadias

    Hypospadias What is hypospadias? Hypospadias is a malformation that affects the urethral tube and the foreskin on a male's penis. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the ou...

  • Infant of Diabetic Mother

    Infant of Diabetic Mother Diabetes in pregnancy There are two types of diabetes that occur in pregnancy: Gestational diabetes --when a mother who does not have diabetes before becoming pregnant devel...

  • Infection in Babies

    Infection in Babies Fighting infectious diseases today is much easier than in the past. Proper hygiene and proper precautions, along with numerous vaccines and rapidly advancing medical technology, h...

  • Intravenous Line and Tubes

    Intravenous Line and Tubes Because most babies in the NICU are too small or sick to take milk feedings, medications and fluids are often given through their veins or arteries. Babies may also need fr...

  • Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    Intraventricular Hemorrhage What is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)? Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles, the spaces in the brain containing the cerebral s...

  • Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    Large for Gestational Age (LGA) What is large for gestational age (LGA)? Large for gestational age (LGA) is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing more than the usual amount for the num...

  • Low Birthweight

    Low Birthweight What is low birthweight? Low birthweight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces). In contrast, the average newborn weighs ab...

  • Meconium Aspiration

    Meconium Aspiration What is meconium aspiration? Meconium aspiration occurs when a baby breathes in amniotic fluid containing meconium (the baby's first stools). What causes meconium aspiration? Befo...

  • Milk Expression

    Milk Expression Expressing your milk You will have to remove milk from your breasts on a regular basis if you are to provide enough of your milk for your high-risk baby. Many mothers find they can ap...

  • Milk Expression Techniques

    Milk Expression Techniques Techniques for expressing milk You will have to depend on milk expression to establish and then maintain milk production until your high-risk baby is ready and able to take...

  • Moving Toward Breastfeeding

    Moving Toward Breastfeeding There is no "one size fits all" method for achieving effective breastfeeding with a high-risk baby, because each baby and each situation is different. Give your high-risk ...

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Necrotizing Enterocolitis What is necrotizing enterocolitis? Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious intestinal illness in babies. "Necrotizing" means damage and death of cells "Entero" refers t...

  • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome What is neonatal abstinence syndrome? Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a term for a group of problems a baby experiences when withdrawing from exposure to narcotics....

  • Nutrition and Fluids

    Nutrition and Fluids Nutrition for babies in the NICU Feeding babies in the NICU is quite different from feeding healthy babies. When babies are sick or premature, they are often not well enough to b...

  • Omphalocele

    Omphalocele What is an omphalocele? An omphalocele is a birth defect, which is an abnormality that occurs before birth as a fetus is forming in its mother's uterus. Some of the abdominal organs protr...

  • Online Resources - High-Risk Newborn

    Online Resources - High-Risk Newborn This Web was compiled from a variety of sources including the online resources listed below, but is not intended to substitute or replace the professional medical...

  • Overview of Birth Defects

    Overview of Birth Defects What is a birth defect? A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change, which is present in a baby at the time he or she is born. Birth defects may be very mild, wh...

  • Overview of Blood and Blood Components

    Overview of Blood and Blood Components Click Image to Enlarge What is blood? Blood is the life-maintaining fluid that circulates through: Heart Arteries Veins Capillaries Brain Rest of the body What ...

  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Click Image to Enlarge What is PDA? PDA is a heart problem that is usually noted in the first few weeks or months after birth. It is characterized by a connection betwe...

  • Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)

    Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) What is periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)? Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is characterized by the death or damage and softening of the white matter, the inner ...

  • Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension What is persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN)? Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is also known as persistent fetal circulation. In this condition, a newbor...

  • Physical Abnormalities

    Physical Abnormalities Many physical abnormalities may require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below is some additional information regarding p...

  • Pneumothorax

    Pneumothorax What is pneumothorax? Pneumothorax is a lung disorder in which air in the lungs leaks out through holes in the lung tissue into the spaces outside the lung airways. Pneumothorax is one t...

  • Polycythemia

    Polycythemia What is polycythemia? Polycythemia is a condition in which there are too many red blood cells in the blood circulation. It is the opposite of anemia, which results from too few red blood...

  • Postmaturity

    Postmaturity What is postmaturity? The normal length of pregnancy is from 37 to 41 weeks. Postmaturity refers to any baby born after 42 weeks gestation or 294 days past the first day of the mother's ...

  • Prematurity

    Prematurity What is prematurity? A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature, that is, born before complete maturity. Slightly fewer than 12 percent of all babies are premature. ...

  • Procedures and Equipment in NICU

    Procedures and Equipment in the NICU What monitoring equipment is used in the NICU? Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) are equipped with complex machines and monitoring devices designed for the un...

  • Pyloric Stenosis

    Pyloric Stenosis What is pyloric stenosis? Pyloric stenosis is a problem that affects babies between birth and 6 months of age and causes forceful vomiting that can lead to dehydration. It is the sec...

  • Respiratory Disorders in the Newborn

    Respiratory Disorders in the Newborn Many respiratory disorders place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory belo...

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) What is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)? RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lungs) and pneumonia in babies. It...

  • Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Retinopathy of Prematurity What is retinopathy of prematurity? Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the blood vessels of the retina (the light sensitive part of the eye). ROP is most com...

  • Sepsis

    Sepsis What is sepsis? Sepsis is a term for severe infection that is present in the blood and spreads throughout the body. In newborns, it is also called sepsis neonatorum or neonatal septicemia. Wha...

  • Small for Gestational Age

    Small for Gestational Age What is small for gestational age (SGA)? Small for gestational age (SGA) is a term used to describe a baby who is smaller than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pr...

  • Special Care

    Special Care Providing special care for sick and premature babies There have been many advances in the care of sick and premature babies, not just in technology and medicine, but also in meeting the ...

  • Spina Bifida

    Spina Bifida What is spina bifida? Spina bifida is a condition in which there is abnormal development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the s...

  • Substance Exposure

    Substance Exposure During pregnancy, nearly every substance taken by a woman passes from her bloodstream through the placenta to her fetus. Substances that cause drug dependence and addiction in the ...

  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)? SIDS is the sudden and unexplained death of an infant under 1 year of age. SIDS is sometimes called crib death because...

  • Taking Your Baby Home

    Taking Your Baby Home Although parents are excited to take their baby home after days or weeks in the NICU, it may cause many parents some anxiety. When a baby is ready for discharge depends on many ...

  • The Benefits of Mother's Own Milk

    The Benefits of Mother's Own Milk The benefits of mother's own milk Nature designed human milk especially for human babies, and it is the ideal food for your baby's first several months. Your breast ...

  • The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

    The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) The birth of a baby is a wonderful yet very complex process. Many physical and emotional changes occur for mother and baby. A baby must make many physical adju...

  • The Respiratory System in Babies

    The Respiratory System in Babies Click Image to Enlarge What is respiration? Respiration is the act of breathing: Inhaling (inspiration). Taking in oxygen. Exhaling (expiration). Giving off carbon di...

  • Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia What is thrombocytopenia? Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which there are too few platelets--the cells produced in the bone marrow that are needed for clotting. What causes thromb...

  • Topic Index - High-Risk Newborn

    Topic Index - High-Risk Newborn High-Risk Newborn Home The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Assessments of Newborn Babies Caring for Babies in the NICU Warmth and Temperature Regulation Nutrition ...

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn What is transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN)? Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birt...

  • Trisomy 18 and 13

    Trisomy 18 and 13 What are trisomies? The term trisomy is used to describe the presence of three chromosomes, rather than the usual pair of chromosomes. For example, if a baby is born with three #21 ...

  • Turner Syndrome

    Turner Syndrome What are monosomies? The term monosomy is used to describe the absence of one member of a pair of chromosomes. Therefore, there is a total of 45 chromosomes in each cell of the body, ...

  • Very Low Birthweight

    Very Low Birthweight What is very low birthweight? Very low birthweight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 4 ounces). Only a few babies, 1.5 perc...

  • Vision and Hearing

    Vision and Hearing Sometimes, babies have problems with vision or hearing. These problems may be due to a birth defect or prematurity. Vision and hearing loss in babies requires clinical care by a ph...

  • Warmth and Temperature Regulation

    Warmth and Temperature Regulation Babies are not as adaptable as adults to temperature change. A baby's body surface is about three times greater than an adult's, compared to the weight of his/her bo...