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Pediatric Library

Normal Newborn

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  • At Work

    At Work Breastfeeding at work When you return to work, plan to get up a little earlier than usual to allow time to breastfeed your baby before leaving for work. Many mothers find they maintain milk p...

  • Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery

    Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery If your baby is born by a cesarean delivery, chances are good that you can be awake for the surgery. Only in rare situations will a mother require general anesth...

  • Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery

    Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery Healthy babies born in a vaginal delivery are usually able to stay with the mother. In many cases, immediate newborn assessments including weight, length, and med...

  • Baby's Care After Birth

    Baby's Care After Birth Learning to care for your baby is an exciting time, but it may come with many questions. Listed in the directory below is some information that will assist you in caring for y...

  • Baby's Care in the Delivery Room

    Baby's Care in the Delivery Room The birth of a baby is one of life's most wondrous moments. Few experiences can compare with this event. Newborn babies have amazing abilities, yet they are completel...

  • Bathing and Skin Care

    Bathing and Skin Care Proper bathing and skin care for your newborn A newborn's skin is soft and delicate. Proper skin care and bathing can help maintain the health and texture of the baby's skin whi...

  • Behavior Changes

    Behavior Changes A change in behavior may be one of the first signs of illness in a newborn. Although a baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, even hour to hour, a ...

  • Birth Injuries

    Birth Injuries What is a birth injury? Occasionally during the birth process, the baby may suffer a physical injury that is simply the result of being born. This is sometimes called birth trauma or b...

  • Bottle-Feeding

    Bottle-Feeding Health considerations when bottle-feeding If you decide not to breastfeed, or are unable to breastfeed, commercial iron-fortified formulas can provide adequate nutrition for your infan...

  • Breast Milk Collection and Storage

    Breast Milk Collection and Storage There are general guidelines for breast milk collection and storage for the healthy baby. They may be used when obtaining milk via a breast pump for occasional "rel...

  • Breast Milk Expression

    Breast Milk Expression Most mothers who plan to continue breastfeeding will need to express their breast milk during the work or school day if away from the baby for more than three or four hours. Th...

  • Breast Milk Expression - Helpful Equipment

    Breast Milk Expression - Helpful Equipment Which breast pumps are best to use? In most cases, mothers will need to rent or purchase an appropriate breast pump to help empty the breasts and maintain a...

  • Breast Milk Is the Best Milk

    Breast Milk Is the Best Milk Nature designed human milk especially for human babies, and it has several advantages over any substitute ever developed. Your milk contains just the right balance of nut...

  • Breastfeeding and Returning To Work

    Breastfeeding and Returning To Work For a mother who is breastfeeding and returning to work, special preparation is needed. Listed in the directory are some considerations to make as you return to wo...

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

    Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby As with some mothers, some babies may have difficulty with breastfeeding. Listed in the directory below is some information regarding breastfeeding difficulties for ...

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

    Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother Learning to breastfeed may be easy for some women, while more difficult for others. Listed in the directory below is some information regarding breastfeeding diffi...

  • Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Breastfeeding Your Baby Choosing how to feed your baby is an important decision that has lifelong effects for your baby and for you. What you have seen and learned about infant feeding from your fami...

  • Breathing Problems

    Breathing Problems What might breathing problems indicate in a newborn? Babies breathe much faster than older children and adults. A newborn's normal breathing rate is about 40 times each minute. Thi...

  • Child Care

    Child Care Deciding among child care options is a particularly tough decision for many mothers, especially for a first child. In some instances, the child's parents arrange work schedules so that one...

  • Childhood Immunizations

    Childhood Immunizations The importance of immunizations Immunization is key to preventing disease among the general population. Vaccines benefit both the people who receive them, and the vulnerable, ...

  • Choosing a Pediatrician

    Choosing a Pediatrician Babies and children are not just small adults--their health care needs are different. So, it is important to find a healthcare professional that can provide specialized care. ...

  • Circumcision

    Circumcision What is circumcision? Circumcision is a surgical procedure to remove the skin covering the end of the penis, called the foreskin. In many cultures, circumcision is a religious rite or a ...

  • Common Procedures

    Common Procedures There are several common procedures that help to provide immediate care for your newborn. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview. Eye Pr...

  • Diapers/Diaper Rash

    Diapers/Diaper Rash What is diapering? An essential part of every baby's care is diapering. Until a child is toilet-trained, usually by three years of age, diapers are used to collect urine and bowel...

  • Effective Breastfeeding

    Effective Breastfeeding What is effective breastfeeding? A baby who breastfeeds effectively cues (shows readiness) for feedings, is in a good feeding position, latches-on (attaches) deeply at the bre...

  • Effective Sucking

    Effective Sucking What is effective sucking? During effective, nutritive sucking, your baby uses the structures of his or her mouth to compress the milk sinuses beneath your breast and move milk into...

  • Eye Prophylaxis/Vitamin K Injection

    Eye Prophylaxis/Vitamin K Injection What is eye prophylaxis? Eye drops or ointment containing an antibiotic medication are placed in a newborn's eyes after birth. This is required by law to protect t...

  • Fever in A Newborn

    Fever in A Newborn Adults have a tightly controlled thermostat to help regulate their body temperature. When cold, an adult shivers, helping to raise the temperature of the body. Sweating occurs when...

  • Flat or Inverted Nipples

    Flat or Inverted Nipples Techniques for flat or inverted nipples An effective breastfeeding baby usually has little trouble breastfeeding even if his/her mother's nipples appear to be flattened. A le...

  • Gastrointestinal Problems

    Gastrointestinal Problems What might gastrointestinal problems indicate in a newborn? A newborn's ability to eat and digest food is essential to growth and development. Most babies are able to absorb...

  • Gestational Assessment

    Gestational Assessment What is a gestational assessment? Assessing a baby's physical maturity is an important part of care. Maturity assessment is helpful in meeting a baby's needs if the dates of a ...

  • Getting Ready

    Getting Ready Breastfeeding preparedness before returning to work About two weeks before you return to work, start pumping or expressing milk for storage to use once you return to work. Initially, pu...

  • Getting Ready at Home

    Newborn Babies—Getting Ready at Home Preparing for a new baby doesn't have to be an overwhelming experience. Experienced parents have learned that newborn babies just need some basic items at first —...

  • Getting Started

    Getting Started Breastfeeding your child Nature designed human milk especially for human babies, and it has several advantages over any substitute ever developed. Your milk contains just the right ba...

  • Getting to Know Your New Baby

    Getting to Know Your New Baby After all the months of waiting and dreaming, it is exciting when your baby is finally born. But it takes time and effort for parents to get to know their newborn, and t...

  • Glossary - Normal Newborn

    Glossary - Normal Newborn | A | | B | | C | | D | | E | | F | | G | | H | | I | | J | | K | | L | | M | | N | | O | | P | | Q | | R | | S | | T | | U | | V | | W | | X | | Y | | Z | A [back to top] A...

  • Hearing Screening Tests for Newborns

    Hearing Screening Tests for Newborns According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), almost 12,000 babies are born each year in the United States with a hearing impairment. It is estimated that...

  • Home Page - Normal Newborn

    Topic Index Preparing for Your New Baby Baby's Care After Birth Newborn Care Newborn Appearance Normal Newborn Behaviors and Activities Bathing and Skin Care Umbilical Cord Care Diapers/Diaper Rash C...

  • How Milk Is Made

    How Milk Is Made How is breast milk made? Many mothers find they can appreciate their babies' breastfeeding patterns or the need for frequent feedings when they understand how breast milk is produced...

  • Hypoglycemia in the Newborn

    Hypoglycemia in the Newborn What is hypoglycemia in the newborn? Hypoglycemia is a condition in which the amount of blood glucose (sugar) in the blood is lower than normal. Who is affected by hypogly...

  • Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking

    Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking A baby must be able to effectively remove milk from the breast during breastfeeding if he or she is to obtain enough milk to gain weight and "tell" the breasts to incr...

  • Infant Feeding Guide

    Infant Feeding Guide Appropriate and healthy feeding of your baby during the first year of life is extremely important. More growth occurs during the first year than at any other time in your child's...

  • Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production

    Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production when Breastfeeding Most mothers worry at some point that they do not have enough milk. A delay in the time when milk "comes in" sometimes occurs in mothers dea...

  • Introducing a Bottle

    Introducing a Bottle If baby is to be bottle fed in your absence, introduce the bottle prior to returning to work. It is best to breastfeed a baby exclusively for the first three to four weeks, howev...

  • Low Milk Production

    Low Milk Production What causes low milk production? Occasionally, a delay in the time when milk "comes in" turns into an ongoing problem with low milk production. Sometimes, a mother has been produc...

  • Mastitis

    Mastitis What is mastitis? Mastitis is often used interchangeably with the term breast infection, but mastitis may also be due to an inflammation. Often a reddened area is noted on the breast. Inflam...

  • Maternal Nutrition and Breastfeeding

    Maternal Nutrition and Breastfeeding A mother's diet while breastfeeding One of the most frequently asked questions from mothers who are breastfeeding or pumping milk to feed their babies is, "Do I n...

  • Maternity Leave

    Maternity Leave Many women continue to breastfeed whether their maternity leave of absence lasts four to six weeks, or several months. However, the longer the leave of absence, the longer you will ha...

  • Measurements

    Measurements Assessing a newborn's weight A baby's birthweight is an important indicator of health. The average weight for term babies (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation) is about 7 lbs (3.2 kg)...

  • Measuring a Baby's Temperature

    Measuring a Baby's Temperature Where should a baby's temperature be taken? Today's digital thermometers make taking a baby's temperature simple, with quick results. For best results in babies and tod...

  • Mismanaged Breastfeeding

    Mismanaged Breastfeeding Managing mismanaged breastfeeding Perhaps the most common cause of slow weight gain is related to mismanaged breastfeeding. The following are some ways to help your baby gain...

  • Newborn Appearance

    Newborn Appearance What does a newborn look like? Parents often dream of what their new baby may look like, thinking about a pink, round, chubby-cheeked and gurgling wonder. It may be surprising for ...

  • Newborn Care

    Newborn Care Listed in the directory below you will find information regarding newborn care. Common Procedures Newborn Health Assessment ...

  • Newborn Complications

    Newborn Complications There are several newborn complications that may occur and require clinical care by a doctor. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview...

  • Newborn Health Assessment

    Newborn Health Assessment Assessing the health of a newborn is very important for detecting any problems in their earliest, most treatable, stages. Listed in the directory below you will find informa...

  • Newborn Immunizations

    Newborn Immunizations According to the CDC, vaccine-preventable childhood diseases in the United States are near an all-time low. But some viruses and bacteria are still active and can cause serious ...

  • Newborn Screening Tests

    Newborn Screening Tests What are newborn screening tests? Nearly all babies will have a simple blood test to check for disorders that are not apparent immediately after delivery. Some of these disord...

  • Newborn Warning Signs

    Newborn Warning Signs What warning signs may indicate a problem with a newborn? Your newborn baby is going through many changes in getting used to life in the outside world. Almost always this adjust...

  • Newborn-Crying

    Newborn-Crying What are the crying patterns of a newborn? The first cries of a newborn baby are often music to the ears of parents. However, over the next weeks and months this "music" can become gra...

  • Newborn-Reflexes

    Newborn-Reflexes What reflexes should be present in a newborn? Reflexes are involuntary movements or actions. Some movements are spontaneous, occurring as part of the baby's usual activity. Others ar...

  • Newborn-Senses

    Newborn-Senses The senses of a newborn Babies are born fully equipped with all the necessary senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. However, some of these senses are less precise than oth...

  • Newborn-Sleep Patterns

    Newborn-Sleep Patterns What are the sleep patterns of a newborn? The average newborn sleeps much of the day and night, waking only for feedings every few hours. It is often hard for new parents to kn...

  • Normal Newborn Behaviors and Activities

    Normal Newborn Behaviors and Activities It is exciting for new parents to watch their newborn's behaviors and activities. However, in some cases, the absence or presence of a behavior or activity may...

  • Online Resources - Normal Newborn

    Online Resources - Normal Newborn This Web page was compiled from a variety of sources including the online resources listed below, but is not intended to substitute or replace the professional medic...

  • Over-Active Let-Down

    Over-Active Let-Down Although most babies with breastfeeding difficulties have problems related to getting enough milk, a few have the opposite problem - handling too much milk. Some mothers have suc...

  • Overview of Birth Defects

    Overview of Birth Defects What is a birth defect? A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change, which is present in a baby at the time he or she is born. Birth defects may be very mild, wh...

  • Physical Examination of the Newborn

    Physical Examination of the Newborn A complete physical examination is an important part of newborn care. Each body system is carefully examined for signs of health and normal function. The doctor al...

  • Plugged Milk Ducts

    Plugged Milk Ducts What are plugged milk ducts? A plugged duct feels like a tender lump in the breast. Some mothers seem to be more prone to developing them, but usually they occur when a mother goes...

  • Preparing for Your New Baby

    Preparing for Your New Baby There is a great deal to consider when preparing for the arrival of your new baby. Listed in the directory below are a few decisions to make, for which we have provided a ...

  • Preparing the Family

    Preparing the Family Preparing for your new baby includes helping other family members adjust. A new baby brings new sounds, new schedules, and new ways of coping for everyone. Most families soon fin...

  • Skin Color Changes

    Skin Color Changes What might skin color changes indicate in a newborn? The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. It is important for you to de...

  • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain

    Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain Determining slow or poor infant weight gain Weight gain is one of many signs of good health in the breastfeeding baby. Sometimes, a perfectly healthy baby simply gains...

  • Sore Nipples

    Sore Nipples Sore nipples are probably the most common difficulty mothers have when breastfeeding. Sore nipples may be caused by different factors. Determining the cause of sore nipples dictates the ...

  • Storing Your Breast Milk

    Storing Your Breast Milk Practical considerations when storing your breast milk Glass or hard plastic containers are the best storage containers for human milk, especially if it is to be frozen and s...

  • Thawing Breast Milk

    Thawing Breast Milk General guidelines for thawing frozen breast milk The following are general guidelines for thawing frozen breast milk: The oldest milk should be used first, unless recently expres...

  • Thrush

    Thrush What is thrush? Thrush is a yeast infection in the mouth and throat of babies. It frequently occurs in infants younger than age five months. Thrush is usually caused by the organism Candida al...

  • Topic Index - Normal Newborn

    Topic Index - Normal Newborn Normal Newborn Home Preparing for Your New Baby Choosing a Pediatrician Getting Ready at Home Preparing the Family Baby's Care After Birth Baby's Care in the Delivery Roo...

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn What is transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN)? Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birt...

  • Umbilical Cord Care

    Umbilical Cord Care The umbilical cord is the baby's lifeline to the mother during pregnancy. However, it is no longer needed once the baby is born. Within a few minutes after birth, the cord is clam...

  • Using a Breast Pump

    Using a Breast Pump Health considerations when using a breast pump Breast milk is not sterile and its anti-infective properties hinder the growth of bacteria. Still, you do not want to introduce "out...

  • When a Baby Has Difficulty After Birth

    When a Baby Has Difficulty After Birth All the baby's body systems must work together in a new way after birth. Sometimes, a baby has difficulty making the transition. Health assessments, including t...

  • When to Call Your Physician

    When to Call Your Physician Knowing when to call your physician, should the need arise, is very important for your baby's health and for your peace of mind. Listed in the directory below you will fin...

  • Your Workplace

    Your Workplace Employer support will be beneficial to successfully continuing breastfeeding. Discuss your plan to continue to breastfeed, and your need to pump or express breast milk during the workd...