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Pediatric Library

Pregnancy and Childbirth

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  • Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Alcohol and Pregnancy The risks involved with alcohol use during pregnancy Alcohol consumption by the mother is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the fetus and is the only known cause o...

  • Anatomy: Fetus in Utero

    Anatomy: Fetus in Utero Click Image to Enlarge Amniotic sac - a thin-walled sac that surrounds the fetus during pregnancy. The sac is filled with amniotic fluid (liquid made by the fetus) and the amn...

  • Birth Statistics

    Birth Statistics Consider the most recent statistics available from the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the CDC: In 2008, 4,247,694 babies were born in the U.S. This was a 2 percent dr...

  • Bottle-Feeding

    Bottle-Feeding Health considerations when bottle-feeding If you decide not to breastfeed, or are unable to breastfeed, commercial iron-fortified formulas can provide adequate nutrition for your infan...

  • Breast Milk Is the Best Milk

    Breast Milk Is the Best Milk Nature designed human milk especially for human babies, and it has several advantages over any substitute ever developed. Your milk contains just the right balance of nut...

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

    Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby As with some mothers, some babies may have difficulty with breastfeeding. Listed in the directory below is some information regarding breastfeeding difficulties for ...

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

    Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother Learning to breastfeed may be easy for some women, while more difficult for others. Listed in the directory below is some information regarding breastfeeding diffi...

  • Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Breastfeeding Your Baby Choosing how to feed your baby is an important decision that has lifelong effects for your baby and for you. What you have seen and learned about infant feeding from your fami...

  • Calculating a Due Date

    Calculating a Due Date How to calculate a due date: A typical pregnancy lasts, on average, 280 days, or 40 weeks--starting with the first day of the last normal menstrual period (LMP) as day 1. An es...

  • Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room

    Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room The birth of a baby is one of life's most wondrous moments. Few experiences can compare with this event. Newborn babies have amazing abilities, yet they are comp...

  • Common Discomforts During Pregnancy

    Common Discomforts During Pregnancy Symptoms of discomfort due to pregnancy vary from woman-to-woman. The following are some common discomforts. However, each mother-to-be may experience symptoms dif...

  • Common Tests During Pregnancy

    Common Tests During Pregnancy The following are some of the more common tests performed during pregnancy: First Trimester Prenatal Screening Tests First trimester screening is a combination of fetal ...

  • Complications of Pregnancy

    Complications of Pregnancy What are some of the more common complications of pregnancy? Although the majority of pregnancies are uneventful, sometimes complications do occur. The following are some o...

  • Delivery

    Delivery What are possible labor complications? Although serious complications are rare during labor, some problems can develop during this time. Some of the more common complications include: Fetal ...

  • Effective Breastfeeding

    Effective Breastfeeding What is effective breastfeeding? A baby who breastfeeds effectively cues (shows readiness) for feedings, is in a good feeding position, latches-on (attaches) deeply at the bre...

  • Effective Sucking

    Effective Sucking What is effective sucking? During effective, nutritive sucking, your baby uses the structures of his or her mouth to compress the milk sinuses beneath your breast and move milk into...

  • Exercise During Pregnancy

    Exercise During Pregnancy Exercise during pregnancy: Regular exercise, with the approval of your physician or midwife, can often help to minimize the physical discomforts of pregnancy and help with t...

  • Flat or Inverted Nipples

    Flat or Inverted Nipples Techniques for flat or inverted nipples An effective breastfeeding baby usually has little trouble breastfeeding even if his/her mother's nipples appear to be flattened. A le...

  • Getting Started

    Getting Started Breastfeeding your child Nature designed human milk especially for human babies, and it has several advantages over any substitute ever developed. Your milk contains just the right ba...

  • Glossary - Pregnancy and Childbirth

    Glossary - Pregnancy and Childbirth | A | | B | | C | | D | | E | | F | | G | | H | | I | | J | | K | | L | | M | | N | | O | | P | | Q | | R | | S | | T | | U | | V | | W | | X | | Y | | Z | A [retu...

  • Home Page - Pregnancy and Childbirth

    Topic Index Birth Statistics Planning a Pregnancy Prenatal Medical Care Pregnancy Common Discomforts of Pregnancy Common Tests During Pregnancy Risks to Pregnancy Warning Signs During Pregnancy Labor...

  • Hormones During Pregnancy

    Hormones During Pregnancy What is the role of hormones during pregnancy? Many hormone levels are affected in the body during pregnancy, with several hormones playing major roles during pregnancy. The...

  • How Milk Is Made

    How Milk Is Made How is breast milk made? Many mothers find they can appreciate their babies' breastfeeding patterns or the need for frequent feedings when they understand how breast milk is produced...

  • Illegal Drug Use and Pregnancy

    Illegal Drug Use and Pregnancy The risks involved with illegal drug use during pregnancy The effects of illegal drugs, such as cocaine, can be devastating on a fetus. Unfortunately, many women of chi...

  • Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking

    Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking A baby must be able to effectively remove milk from the breast during breastfeeding if he or she is to obtain enough milk to gain weight and "tell" the breasts to incr...

  • Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production

    Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production when Breastfeeding Most mothers worry at some point that they do not have enough milk. A delay in the time when milk "comes in" sometimes occurs in mothers dea...

  • Labor and Delivery

    Labor and Delivery After nine months of incredible growth and changes both in the mother and the fetus, labor (contractions of the uterus) may finally start, signaling the pending birth of the baby. ...

  • Low Milk Production

    Low Milk Production What causes low milk production? Occasionally, a delay in the time when milk "comes in" turns into an ongoing problem with low milk production. Sometimes, a mother has been produc...

  • Mastitis

    Mastitis What is mastitis? Mastitis is often used interchangeably with the term breast infection, but mastitis may also be due to an inflammation. Often a reddened area is noted on the breast. Inflam...

  • Medical Conditions and Pregnancy

    Medical Conditions and Pregnancy Medical conditions that may affect pregnancy Certain medical conditions may complicate a pregnancy. However, with proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy ...

  • Medications and Pregnancy

    Medications and Pregnancy The risks involved with medication use during pregnancy: When pregnant, a woman should always check with her physician/midwife before taking any prescription or over-the-cou...

  • Mismanaged Breastfeeding

    Mismanaged Breastfeeding Managing mismanaged breastfeeding Perhaps the most common cause of slow weight gain is related to mismanaged breastfeeding. The following are some ways to help your baby gain...

  • Nutrition During Pregnancy

    Nutrition During Pregnancy The importance of good nutrition during pregnancy According to the FDA, about 300 extra calories are needed daily to maintain a healthy pregnancy. These calories should...

  • Online Resources - Respiratory Disorders

    Online Resources - Respiratory Disorders This Web was compiled from a variety of sources including the online resources listed below, but is not intended to substitute or replace the professional med...

  • Over-Active Let-Down

    Over-Active Let-Down Although most babies with breastfeeding difficulties have problems related to getting enough milk, a few have the opposite problem - handling too much milk. Some mothers have suc...

  • Overview of Labor

    Overview of Labor What is labor? Labor is a series of continuous, progressive contractions of the uterus which help the cervix to open (dilate) and to thin (efface), allowing the fetus to move throug...

  • Planning a Pregnancy

    Planning a Pregnancy If you're planning to become pregnant, taking certain steps can help reduce risks for both you and your baby. Proper health before deciding to become pregnant is almost as import...

  • Plugged Milk Ducts

    Plugged Milk Ducts What are plugged milk ducts? A plugged duct feels like a tender lump in the breast. Some mothers seem to be more prone to developing them, but usually they occur when a mother goes...

  • Postpartum Care

    Postpartum Care The postpartum period begins after the delivery of the baby and ends when the mother's body has returned as closely as possible to its pre-pregnant state. This period usually lasts si...

  • Pregnancy

    Pregnancy A pregnancy is divided into three phases, called trimesters. Each trimester has its own significant milestones. Listed in the directory below, you will find additional information regarding...

  • Prenatal Medical Care

    Prenatal Medical Care The importance of early prenatal medical care As soon as a woman discovers she is pregnant, she should establish a schedule of prenatal care with her health care provider for th...

  • Risks to Pregnancy

    Risks to Pregnancy Many external factors, including alcohol, drugs, smoke, high temperatures, radiation exposure, and high altitudes, can pose a serious threat to a developing fetus. Listed in the di...

  • Sex During Pregnancy

    Sex During Pregnancy Considerations regarding sex during pregnancy: In most cases, sex during pregnancy is safe. In fact, with your health care provider's approval, sexual relations can continue unti...

  • Signs of Pregnancy / The Pregnancy Test

    Signs of Pregnancy / The Pregnancy Test What are the signs of pregnancy? The signs of pregnancy vary from woman to woman. Usually the most obvious sign is the absence of menstruation (amenorrhea). Ho...

  • Sleeping During Pregnancy

    Sleeping During Pregnancy Sleeping positions during pregnancy: As the fetus grows within the uterus, lying on your back is not recommended due to pressure on the inferior vena cava, a major vein that...

  • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain

    Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain Determining slow or poor infant weight gain Weight gain is one of many signs of good health in the breastfeeding baby. Sometimes, a perfectly healthy baby simply gains...

  • Smoking and Pregnancy

    Smoking and Pregnancy The risks involved with smoking during pregnancy Although fewer women are smoking during their pregnancy now than ever before, the habit still persists among many women. In addi...

  • Sore Nipples

    Sore Nipples Sore nipples are probably the most common difficulty mothers have when breastfeeding. Sore nipples may be caused by different factors. Determining the cause of sore nipples dictates the ...

  • The First Trimester

    The First Trimester The first prenatal visit The first prenatal visit is the most thorough. A complete medical history is taken, a physical examination is conducted, as well as certain tests and proc...

  • The Pregnant Mother

    The Pregnant Mother Even with all the joy and anticipation pregnancy can bring, it is not uncommon for a mother-to-be to have some questions and concerns -- questions not only about changes to expect...

  • The Second Trimester

    The Second Trimester Prenatal visits during the second trimester During the second and third trimester prenatal visits, your health care provider may check the following, depending on your current me...

  • The Third Trimester

    The Third Trimester Prenatal visits during the third trimester During the second and third trimester prenatal visits, your physician/midwife may check the following, depending on your current medical...

  • Topic Index - Pregnancy and Childbirth

    Topic Index - Pregnancy and Childbirth Pregnancy & Childbirth Home Birth Statistics Planning a Pregnancy Signs of Pregnancy / The Pregnancy Test Calculating a Due Date Prenatal Medical Care Pregn...

  • Warning Signs During Pregnancy

    Warning Signs During Pregnancy What are some warning signs of potential pregnancy complications? Certain symptoms should be reported to your physician immediately, during any stage of the pregnancy. ...

  • Weight Gain During Pregnancy

    Weight Gain During Pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy varies from woman to woman and depends on body type. Each woman should talk with her care provider about the appropriate amount of weight gai...

  • Work and Pregnancy

    Work and Pregnancy Guidelines for working during pregnancy Many women work during pregnancy without any complications. Being able to work safely, in some cases, until the day of delivery depends on t...