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Topic Index

The Heart

Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children

Heart Murmurs

Heart Failure

Congenital Heart Disease

Rheumatic Heart Disease


Bacterial Endocarditis

Eisenmenger's Syndrome


Kawasaki Disease

Problems Affecting the Coronary Arteries and Blood Vessels

Problems Involving Heart Rhythm


Heart Transplantation


Most people only think of middle-aged or elderly adults as being affected by heart disease. Children are usually thought of as having healthy hearts. Nine out of every 1,000 babies born in the U.S. are born with a congenital heart abnormality. It is estimated that one-third of these babies require intervention to prevent death in the first year of life. Approximately 1.3 million people living in the U.S. today were born with a congenital heart defect, and at least half of these individuals are under age 25. Picture of a girl sitting at a computer

Risk factors that contribute to cardiovascular diseases, such as smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, and high cholesterol levels often begin at an early age. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), most adult smokers started when they were in their teens or even earlier. The AHA also reports that evidence shows that smokers who started the habit before age 20 develop heart disease and high blood pressure earlier and in greater numbers than nonsmokers. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, studies have shown that children with elevated cholesterol levels tend to have elevated cholesterol into adulthood. According to the CDC, 17 percent of children ages 5 to 11 are obese. Furthermore, a study of obese 5- to 17-year-olds found that 70 percent of the children had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Some heart problems experienced by children, such as most cases of congenital (present at birth) heart defects, can be treated medically or surgically, but cannot be prevented.

However, heart-healthy living habits started at an early age – sensible eating, keeping cholesterol levels low, getting regular exercise, refraining from smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight – greatly diminish the risks for other cardiovascular problems such as stroke, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease developing in adulthood. Heart-healthy living is important for children born with heart defects to prevent complications from medical and surgical treatments that may be required throughout adolescence and adulthood.